Cetirizine: Proficient drug to Treat Allergy

Allergy is an excessive reaction of the immune system to other inactive substances in the environment. Allergies occur when a person’s immune system becomes sensitive to certain substances, such as food, pollen, medicine, or bee venom. Allergy symptoms range from mild (rash or rash, itching, runny nose, watery/red eyes) to life-threatening. 

Causes Of Allergy:

When an allergy occurs, the allergens interact with the immune system called immunoglobulin E (IgE). Antibiotics fight external and harmful substances. When an allergen interacts with IgE, certain cell types – including mast cells – release chemicals that cause symptoms. One of these chemicals is histamine. It strengthens the walls of the respiratory tract muscles and blood vessels. It also directs the nasal passages to form dust.

Allergy Symptoms :

Symptoms vary depending on the allergen and how it is related to it. Some major allergy symptoms are given below:

  • Red, dry cracked skin
  • Swollen lips, eyes etc.
  • Wheezing 
  • Chest tightness 
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea 
  • Feeling of illness 
  • Hives
  • Conjunctivitis 
  • Allergic Rhinitis
  • Cough
  • Sneezing 
  • Watery eyes

etc.

Treatment of Allergies:

There are different ways to treat allergies which include treatment with antihistamines, treatment with steroid medicines, decongestants etc. Antihistamines are medications that are used to relieve allergic symptoms such as hay fever, hives, conjunctivitis and insect bites or stinging reactions. They are also used as a short-term treatment to prevent illness and insomnia. Cetirizine is an antihistamine that relieves allergy symptoms such as yellow eyes, runny nose, itchy eyes, nose, sores, hives and itching. It works by blocking histamine that the human body produces during an allergic reaction. The brand name of Cetirizine is Zyrtec.

Brand Names of Cetirizine:

There are different brands available for Cetirizine such as:

  • Zyrtec
  • Aller-Tec 
  • Children’s Zyrtec 
  • Wal-Zyr 
  • Zerviate(ophthalmic preparation)
  • Children’s Allergy Relief

Loratadine: Proficient drug to Treat Allergy 

Loratadine is an antihistamine that lowers the effects of naturally produced histamine in the body. Histamine can cause allergic symptoms like sneezing, itching, watery eyes and bleeding.

Loratadine is used to treat those allergic symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, hives, skin rash, malaria, itching and other flu or allergy symptoms.

Cetirizine Uses:

Cetirizine is a prescription and over-the-counter antihistamine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There below discussed different Cetirizine uses. Cetirizine is used to treat:

  • Annual or seasonal allergic Reactions 
  • Anaphylactic reactions 
  • Vasomotor rhinitis 
  • Hives(Urticaria)
  • Allergic Conjunctivitis 
  • To provide relief to cold symptoms 
  • Pruritus 
  • Hay fever 
  • Itching of nose or throat
  • Angioedema
  • Runny Nose
  • Sneezing
  • Itchy or watery eyes 

Cetirizine Dosage:

Cetirizine Dosage varies from children to adults and adolescents. Different Dosages are used to treat different conditions related to allergy. 

Cetirizine Dosage for Allergic Rhinitis:

Paediatric Dose 

From 6 months to 2 years:

  • Initial dose: 2.5 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maintenance dose: 2.5 mg taken orally 2 times per day OR 5 mg taken orally once per day 
  • Maximum dose: 5 mg taken orally per day 

From 2 years to 5 years:

  • Initial dose: 2.5 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maintenance dose: 2.5 mg taken orally 2 times per day OR 5 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maximum dose: 5 mg taken orally per day

6 years and older: 

  • 5 to 10 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maximum dose: 10 mg taken orally per day

Cetirizine Dosage for Urticaria:

Paediatric Dose 

From 6 months to 2 years:

  • Initial dose: 2.5 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maintenance dose: 2.5 mg taken orally once to 2 times per day
  • Maximum dose: 5 mg taken orally per day

2 to 5 years:

  • Initial dose: 2.5 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maintenance dose: 2.5 mg taken orally 2 times per day OR 5 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maximum dose: 5 mg taken orally per day

6 years and older: 

  • 5 to 10 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maximum dose: 10 mg taken orally per day

Cetirizine Dosage for Allergic Rhinitis:

Adult Dose

  • 5 to 10 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maximum dose: 10 mg taken orally per day
  • Recommended Dose: Patients older than 65 years should start with 5 mg once daily.

Cetirizine Dosage for Urticaria:

Adult Dose

  • 5 to 10 mg taken orally once per day
  • Maximum dose: 10 mg taken orally per Recommend Dose: Patients older than 65 years should start with 5 mg once daily.

Cetirizine Interactions:

Do not start, stop or change the dose of any medicine until you have talked to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist. No serious interactions with cetirizine

Some serious Cetirizine Interactions include:

  • Isocarboxazid
  • Tranylcypromine

Other Moderate  Cetirizine Interactions include:

  • Bosutinib
  • Clobazam
  • Crizotinib
  • Daclatasvir
  • Eliglustat
  • Hyaluronidase
  • Lomitapide

Some Mild Cetirizine Interactions include:

  • Dyphylline
  • Theophylline

This document does not cover all possible interactions. Therefore, before using Zyrtec, tell your doctor or pharmacist about all the products you are already using. Tell about all your previous medicines you are taking. Consult your doctor in case of having any query.

Cetirizine Side Effects:

Some common cetirizine side effects include:

  • Sleepiness
  • Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Nose Bleed
  • Stomach Pain
  • Drowsiness
  • Rapid swelling 
  • Fatigue
  • Dry Mouth
  • Diarrhea
  • Malaise
  • Difficulty in Breathing
  • Swelling
  • Hallucinations
  • Low Blood Pressure
  • Tremor
  • Tongue Discoloration

This article does not cover all possible adverse effects and some serious Cetirizine side effects may occur.  For more information on other types of side effects, contact your doctor.

Cetirizine Warnings and Precautions:

  • Hypersensitivity to cetirizine or hydroxyzine, if you are allergic to cetirizine or any of the ingredients in this medicine, then don’t take zyrtec or other brands that contain Cetirizine.
  • Keep away from children. 
  • In case of overdosing immediately contact to the Poison Control Centre or get quick medical treatment.
  • Avoid the use of alcohol, sedatives as cetirizine may increase the risk of drowsiness.
  • Cetirizine can cause central nervous system depression.
  • Be careful with liver and kidneys elderly people can be sensitive to adverse effects.
  • Cetirizine is generally safe to take during pregnancy.
  • Zyrtec is not recommended for nursing mothers.

Cetirizine Pros and Cons:

Pros:

  • It has to be taken only once per day and  provides quick relief to allergic symptoms.
  • It is available as low-cost generic and OTC as well.
  • It is available in different dosage forms such as swallowing pills, chewable tablets, liquid form as well.

Cons:

  • It has a few side effects.
  • It can cause more sleepiness if taken with sedatives.
  • People having liver or kidney problems are at higher risk of side effects.

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